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Quantum Science | Spectrum

Quantum Computing

The study of quantum science, particularly quantum information science, is an area of research that has seen a rapid increase in activity since the beginning of the 21st century. The field of investigation promises enormous advancements in technology that may have a profound effect on the way we perform the future operations of computing and communications. By exploiting the principles of quantum mechanics scientists are studying the behavior of qubits, quantum bits of information, as they are subjected to different physical conditions. Instrumentation such as arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs) and digitizers play a crucial part in process. AWGs allow the generation of an almost unlimited range of waveforms that can be used to produce electromagnetic signals in the radio-wave range that in turn stimulate or resonate the materials being studied. While digitizers allow the capture and rapid analysis of resulting signals that reveal the qubit behavior.

Spectrum Instrumentation's AWGs offer multi-channel waveform generation with output rates up to 1.25 GS/s and 16 bit resolution. The multi-channel design makes it possible to scale up systems to study multiple qubits simultaneously, while the fast output rate allows complex signals, up to 400 MHz in frequency, to be easily generated. For applications requiring even higher frequencies the signals can also be passed through upconverters, potentially extending the frequency range up to tens of GHz.

With their very high resolution and synchronous output capability the AWGs  are perfect for producing the required stimulus signals. They also include a host of replay and trigger modes to make it possible to output an almost unlimited variety of waveshapes. Fully programmable, the AWGs can be quickly reconfigured and, thanks to their large on-board memories, can even output sequences of waveshapes while new stimulus signals are being loaded!   
While AWGs play a crucial role in creating the waveforms necessary to study qubits, digitizers also play a key part in determining how the qubits react under the various test conditions. Spectrum Instrumentation offers a wide variety of multi-channel digitizers that have sampling rates up to 5 GS/s, bandwidth over 1.5 GHz and vertical resolutions from 8 to 16 bit. To extend the useful signal frequency range that the digitizers can cover they can also be used with off-the-shelf downconverter technology. Furthermore, the Spectrum digitizers are optimized for dynamic performance to ensure signals are acquired with high SNR and low noise. The units are equipped with fully programmable front end amplifiers and can be used with a range of specially selected low noise external amplifiers that make it possible to acquire and analyze low level signals that go down into the µV range.

Spectrum Product Features

  • Digitizers with sampling rates up to 5 GS/s and Bandwidth over 1.5 GHz
  • AWGs with output rates up to 1.25 GS/s
  • 8, 14 and 16 Bit Resolution
  • Ultra-fast triggering with Segmented Memory and FIFO Readout/Replay
  • Streaming data to RAID disc arrays at up to 3 GB/s
  • FPGA based Averaging and Peak Detection

Matching Product Families

  • M4i.66xx: 16 bit 625 MS/s to 1.25 GS/s AWG
  • DN2.66x: 16 Bit 625 MS/s to 1.25 GS/s LXI AWG with up to 6 additional marker channels
  • M4i.22xx: 8 Bit 1.25 GS/s to 5 GS/s Digitizer
  • M4i.44xx: 16 Bit 250 MS/s to 14 Bit 500 MS/s Digitizer

Related Documents

AWG for Quantum Research

Precision is always important in research and there can be few research areas needing greater precision than that of quantum research. The Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the University of Innsbruck, Austria needed an Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) to generate a wide variety of signals for their research.

AWG used for atomic experiment at Stuttgart University

The Stuttgart University has chosen a Spectrum Arbitrary Waveform Generator for their experiments in which single atoms in a diamond are replaced by nitrogen atoms. This method is a base for applications like a magnetic field detector at the atomic level or a qubit in a quantum computer.

Useful Links

  • At the QuTech and the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, in the Netherlands they are using an M4i.44xx series digitizer to test a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon. Find out how by clicking here
  • At the  Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA they are using a Spectrum M4i.6631-x8 Arbitrary Waveform Generator to drive an acousto-optic modulator and a Rydberg laser to generate and manipulate Schrodinger cat states in Rydberg atom arrays. The research paper covering the experimental setup and results is available for download here