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Digitizers up to 130 MS/s
High-Resolution Digitizers 125 MS/s up to 500 MS/s
Digitizers 1 GS/s and more
AWGs

Digitizers up to 130 MS/s

Acoustic Emission

At the Shandong University, School of Mechanical Electrical and Information Engineering, Weihai, China they are using acoustic emission together with the model M2p.5922-x4 20 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer to detect broken wires in bridge cables. Details of the research can be found below

Research Paper
Photolysis of Formic Acid

The Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, in Taiwan are studying the roaming dynamics and conformational memory in photolysis of formic acid. They use an M4i.4410-x8, 130 MS/s, 16 bit, Digitizer for data acquisition in their Time-resolved Fourier-transform Infrared Emission Spectroscopy system. A research paper on the topic can be found below

Research Paper
Micro Bubbles Cavitation

The Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China is conducting research into the properties of daughter bubbles that are generated by inertial cavitation of preformed microbubbles. For detection of inertial cavitation and scattering, transducers produce signals that are acquired by an M4i.4410-x8 130 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer. The data is then transferred to a computer for Fourier transform and power spectrum analysis. A white paper discussing this ultrasonics sonochemistry research is available for download

Research Paper
Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

The Oklahoma State University, USA, has developed a system and method that improves the quality of step-scan Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy data by improved removal of dark voltage. The experimentation uses a digitizerNETBOX DN2.441-02 that can acquire signals by sampling them at rates up to 130 MS/s with 16 bit resolution. A patent application outlining the scope of the work is available below

Patent Application
FMCW Lidar

At the State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, China, they are using an M2p.5961-x4 125 MS/s, 16 bit Digitizer to simultaneously measure velocity and distance using a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) lidar system. The system details and experimental results are discussed here:

Results and System Details
Aircraft Engines - Blade Clearances

The University of Lorraine, CNRS, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, in France, is using a digitizerNETBOX DN2.496-16, to study contact interactions in aircraft engines with small blade-casing clearances. To investigate these interactions and the mechanisms of wear deriving from them, they’ve developed a specific ballistic bench in order to perform representative tests of low-pressure compressor environments (up to 270 °C) and enabling only one interaction between an aluminum-based abradable sample and a Ti6Al4V tool. A paper discussing the effects at different temperatures can be found here:

White Paper
Biomedical Laser Spectroscopy

At the Norwegian University of Science and Technology they are using an eight channel M2p.5946-x4 80 MS/s, 16 bit, digitizer card as part of their studies into biomedical laser spectroscopy. The development of a Mid-Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for Glucose Sensing is discussed here:

Research Paper
Breath Gas Analysis

See how a Spectrum M2i.4963-exp digitizer card, programmed under LabVIEW, is used at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden, in an EC‑QCL (external cavity – quantum cascade laser) system for real‑time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 by clicking the link here:

Reserach Paper
OCT - Optical Coherence Tomography

See how fast Spectrum digitizers M2i.2031 and M2i.4022 are used for OCT data acquisition at the University of Sheffield, UK, by clicking here:

Research Paper
Hypersonic Transition Experiments

Download this white paper to see how a high precision 16 bit Spectrum digitizer M2i.4652 is used at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Technical University of Brunswick, Germany for Hypersonic Transition Experiments by clicking here:

White Paper
MPI in Cancer Research

Learn how Japan's Meiji University is using a high-resolution Spectrum digitizer M2i.4031 for the evaluation of magnetic nanoparticle samples in cancer research with time correlation magnetic particle imaging (MPI) by clicking here:

White Paper
Optical Feedback Cavity Ring-Down

The Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China, uses both a Spectrum 14 bit AWG M2i.6021 and 12 bit digitizer M2i.3010 as key elements in their experimental Optical Feedback Cavity Ring-Down (OF-CRD) system. Learn how signal processing can help extract low signal-to-noise ratio signals by clicking here:

Research Paper
Transformator Windows Analysis

Power system failures are often related to mechanical deformation in transformer windings. Winding distortion can lead to insulation deterioration which in turn can produce partial discharge and gassing type events. At the Xi’an Jiaotong University, in Xi’an, China, they are using a Spectrum M2i.4912 Digitizer and M2i.6011 AWG to perform Swept Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) while researching the main causes of transformer failure in high-voltage power systems. IEEE members can read the full story here:

IEEE Paper
Supershear Rupture Analysis

Find out how the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience,Tsukuba, Japan uses a Spectrum high-resolution digitizer M2i.4741 to collect strain array data as part of their investigations into shear strain fields that are associated with supershear rupture by clicking here:

Research Papers
Tensile Fracture

See how Shanghai University of Engineering and Science, Shanghai, China, use Acoustic Emission techniques to study tensile fracture in polyester and cotton with a Spectrum digitizer M2i.4911-exp (this article is in Chinese) by clicking here:

Research paper (Chinese)
Development of Acoustic Emission Sensors

At the School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, in Beijing, China the model M2p.5921-x4 20 MS/s, 16-bit PCIe Digitizer is used for signal acquisition in the development of fiber-wrapped polymer mandrel (FWPM) acoustic emission sensors, based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A paper discussing the development can be found here:

Research Paper
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM

The State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China is using an M2p.5923-x4 20 Ms/s, 16-bit Digitizer in an atomic force microscope (AFM) for real-time lossless acquisition of high-throughput multichannel signals. The institute is developing a data processing and multidimensional mechanical information extraction algorithms for the composite mode of peak force tapping and torsional resonance. A white paper on the research can be found here:

Research Paper
Research into potential Semiconductor Materials

At the Department of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in Germany, research into the properties of potential semiconductor materials is being made using Spectrum Instrumentation M4i.6622-x8 625 MS/s, 16-bit AWG, M4i.4411-x8 130 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer and M2p.5913-x4 Digitizer cards. A thesis paper that discusses using unconventional tuning parameters of low temperature transport at strontium titanate interfaces can be found here:

Thesis Paper
Transient Thermal Characteristics of SiC Power

The Division of Electrical, Electronic and Infocommunications Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, at Osaka University in Japan studies transient thermal characteristics of power modules with the aim to maximize the capability of SiC power semiconductor devices. A white paper discusses the work. A key feature is the use of an M2p.5933-x4 40 Ms/s, 16-bit, PCIe Digitizer card. Numerical calculations show that high-speed sampling and high resolution in measuring the time response of the junction temperature improves the
accuracy in identifying the transient thermal network model

White Paper
Underwater Acoustics Laboratory

A new underwater acoustics laboratory has been created at Brigham Young University, Utah, in the US. For sensor positioning, signal generation, and data acquisition they are using Spectrum Instrumentation M2p.6546-x4 and M2p.5932-x4 40 MS/s, 16-bit AWG and Digitizer cards. A white paper describing the lab setup, including details about the water tank, water treatment and sanitizer system, anechoic panels, signal transmission and data acquisition, and the automated positioning system can be found here

White Paper
Deep Neural Networks

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA, they are studying ways to enable computing on a new generation of edge devices with speeds comparable to modern digital electronics and power consumption that is orders of magnitude lower. A paper that discusses advances in deep neural networks (DNNs) is linked below. It outlines the experimental setup, which includes the use of two M2p.5943-x4 80 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizers to make a 16-channel acquisition system for collecting photodiode signals.

White Paper
Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

Terahertz spectroscopy has become an important tool for investigations of low-frequency optical responses in condensed matter physics. At Keio University, Yokohama, Japan they have developed a polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system without mechanical moving parts. The system uses an M2p.5962-x4 125 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition and a white paper discussing the development can be found here:

White Paper
Optical Frequency Combs in Spectroscopy

The optical frequency comb (OFC) technique enables high-precision optical metrology which has found application in many scientific areas, such as molecular spectroscopy, astronomy, and particle physics. At Keio University, Yokohama, Japan they have demonstrated a measurement protocol that enables determination of the absolute mode numbers of both OFCs in a dual-comb spectroscopy system. The system uses an M2p.5962-x4 125 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition. A research paper on the development can be found here

Research Paper
Stable Cavitation Activity of circulating Microbubbles

At the School of Sensing Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in China they are using a closed-loop feedback controller, based on pulse length (PL), regulation method to improve the temporal stability of stable cavitation (SC) activity. The aim is to achieve controllable and desirable SC activity in target regions for improved therapeutic efficiency and biosafety. A research paper showing the improvements obtained can be found here 7 The setup uses an M4i.4410-x8 130 MS/s, 16-bit PCIe Digitizer to determine the acoustic emission properties of the circulating microbubbles. The digitizer acquires signals produced by a transducer and passes the data at high speed to a computer for subsequent processing.

Reserach Paper
Daughter- and Microbubble Studies

Inertial cavitation (IC) of the preformed microbubbles is being investigated for ultrasound imaging and therapeutic applications. However, microbubbles rupture during IC, creating smaller daughter bubbles (DBs), which may cause undesired bioeffects in the target region. The School of Sensing Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in China, is researching the properties of the daughter bubbles with the aim of achieving controllable cavitation activity. A research paper on the topic can be found here  with the experimental setup using an M4i.4410-x8 130 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer to acquire the relevant transducer signals

Research Paper
Software Defined Radio with GPU Accelerator

The Department of Security and Crime Science, at the University College London, UK has been studying ways to create a high- speed Software Defined Radar (SDRadar) system. Using a GPU accelerator with a 16-channel DN2.593-16 80 MS/s, 16 bit LXI Digitizer they have developed a system that overcomes processing speed limitations when using a CPU only. A paper discussing their work and results can be found here:

Research Paper
Using Radar for Human Identification

At the Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics , in China they are using an M2i.4912 10 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition in a radar system that uses micro-Doppler signatures and deep convolutional neural networks for human identification. A reference paper on the subject can be found here:

Research Paper

High-Resolution Digitizer 125 MS up to 500 MS

Photoacoustic Wavefront Shaping

At London’s St Thomas’ Hospital in the UK, they are working on a high-speed photoacoustic-guided wavefront shaping method, that uses a relatively simple experimental setup, with potential for in vivo applications. Part of the system uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer to acquire ultrasonic signals. The full research paper discussing the experimental setup and results can be found here:

Research Paper
Ultrasound Endoscope

The College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, China, is improving the performance of photoacoustic/ultrasound endoscopes. Their research uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer as part of dual-modality endoscope. A research paper shows the potential for using the tens-of-micron-resolved PA/US endoscope for in vivo anatomical imaging in the clinical detection of colorectal diseases.

Research Paper
Dual-comb Spectroscopy System

At the Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Tsinghua University, China, they are developing ways to lower the cost of Dual-comb Spectroscopy systems. A new approach uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer to acquire signals and passes the data to a computer where it is analysed using a simple frequency domain post-processing method. A white paper explaining their system and the process can be found below

Research Paper
Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Magnetometry

At the Beihang University, Beijing, China, they are using an M4.4450-x8, 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer to research a pulsed lock-in method for ensemble nitrogen-vacancy center magnetometry. A research paper on the topic can be found below

Research Paper
Spin Readout by Gate Reflectometry

Silicon spin qubits are promising candidates for realizing large-scale quantum processors and the subject of a collaborative research effort by the London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, United Kingdom, Quantum Motion Technologies, Windsor House, Harrogate, United Kingdom, CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble, France, Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA, IRIG-MEM-L_Sim, Grenoble, France and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London, United Kingdom. A research paper discussing Spin Readout of a CMOS Quantum Dot by Gate Reflectometry and
Spin-Dependent Tunneling, where an M4i.4451-x8 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer is used for signal measurements is available below

Research Paper
Initiation of Lightening Events

At the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Duke University, USA they are studying the electric fields that develop with a natural lightening leader. They have developed a 10–250 MHz broadband lightning interferometer that allows them to measure the very high frequency (VHF) radio emissions from the tip of a positive cloud-to-ground (CG) leader. Research papers on the work, that includes the use of an  M4i.4451-x8, 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer, 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer, are available here and here:

Research Paper
Spin Dynamics in Hybrid Quantum Systems

The technical University of Munich, Germany, is using an M4i.4451-x8 500 MS/s, 14-bit, Digitizer to study the spin dynamics in strongly coupled spin-photon hybrid quantum systems. The digitizer is used to acquire and analyse the I and Q components of IF signals that result from downconversion of microwaves emerging from a cryostat. A reference paper on the research is available here:

Reserach Paper
Drug Delivery for Cancer Treatment

The University of Leeds and the Leeds Institute of Medical Research, Leeds, U.K. are studying the use of nanobubbles as a drug delivery agent for cancer treatment. A Spectrum M4i.4420-x8, 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer is used as the data acquisition card that collect acoustic emission signals. A paper discussing the research can be found here:

Research Paper
Space Debris Tracking

At the Polytechnic University of Madrid’s, Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, in Spain, they are studying how radar systems can be improved to allow better tracking of space debris orbiting earth. A masters paper discussing how signal generation can be adapted and optimized is below (in Spanish) with data acquired using an M4i.4420-x8, 250 MS/s, 16 bit, digitizer

Masters Paper (Spanish)
Optoacoustic Image Reconstruction

The University of Bern’s Institute of Applied Physics in Switzerland is testing and developing algorithms used for image reconstruction in optoacoustic imaging applications. Test signals are acquired using an M4i.4420-x8, 250 MS/s, 16 bit, digitizer and a research paper discussing their findings can be downloaded from here:

Research Paper
Optoacoustic Microscopy for Dermatologic and Micro-angiography

At Switzerland’s Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Faculty of Medicine, at the University Zurich, they are using a burst-mode laser triggering scheme and an M4i.4420-x8, 250 MS/s, 16 bit, digitizer to perform rapid acquisition functional optoacoustic micro-angiography. A paper discussing the developed system, and how it greatly enhances the performance and usability of optoacoustic microscopy for dermatologic and micro-angiographic studies, can be found here:

Research Paper
Search for Axion-like Dark Matter

In a search for axion-like dark matter the Department of Physics, Boston University, USA is using an M4i.4421-x8 250 MS/s, 16 bit, digitizer to help monitor and analyse the behaviour of oscillating magnetic fields. A paper discussing their findings and experimental results that explore the coupling strengths and masses of axion-like particles can be downloaded here:

Research Paper
Handheld Photoacoustic Microscopy

The MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, at the South China Normal University, in China has developed a Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI) pen that can be handheld (performing forward detection and lateral detection) to extend the application of photoacoustic (PA) microscopy to areas such as the oral cavity, throat, cervix, and abdominal viscera. The experimental setup uses an M4i.4450-x8 500 MS/s, 14 bit, digitizer to acquire the sensor signals. A paper discussing the PAI pen and the test results can be found here:

Research Paper
Quantum Bits in Nitrogen-Vacancy

At the Walter Schottky Institute and Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, Germany they have demonstrated a way of keeping a quantum bit alive by feed-forward decoupling. The research shows that a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center strongly couples to current noise in a nearby conductor. By conditioning the readout observable on a measurement of the current, it’s possible to recover the full qubit coherence and the qubit's intrinsic coherence time. This technique uses a 500 MS/s 14 bit M4i.4451-x8 Digitizer and is discussed in a research paper that can be found here:

Research Paper
FSI: Frequency Scanning Interferometer

The Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in China is using a 250 MS/s, 16 bit M4i.4421-x8 Digitizer to help eliminate the influence of laser frequency nonlinearities in a frequency-scanning interferometry (FSI). A white paper discusses the process for absolute distance measurement using an FSI that’s based on Hilbert phase subdivision

White Paper
Position Measurement of a Levitated Nanoparticles

At the University of Science and Technology of China, in Hefei researchers are using an M4i.4421-x8 250 MS/s, 16 bit digitizer to help them study methods for position measurement of a levitated nanoparticles. A paper discussing their research can be found here:

Research Paper
Large Area all-optical Ultrasound Imaging

The University College London has developed a method for large area all-optical ultrasound imaging using robotic control that involves the use of an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit digitizer. A white paper on the development can be found here:

Research Paper
Multi-Heterodyne Interferometry

By using multi-heterodyne interferometry with a high resolution M4i.4471-x8 digitizer the State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, has developed a method for making absolute distance measurements. Experimental results demonstrate an agreement within 750 nm over 80 m distances and an update rate of 167 μs. To see the full white paper click here:

Research Paper
Beam Position Monitor for Particle Accelerators

At the FH Aachen University of Applied Science in Germany a Spectrum M4i.4421-x8 250 MS/s, 16 bit digitizer is being used to help with the development of beam position monitoring (BPM) systems for particle accelerators. The full story is available for download here:

Research Paper
Test Signals for Multifunction Vehicle Bus

Find out how the College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China employ a Spectrum Digitizer M3i.4142 and a AWG M2i.6021 to provide test signals for multifunction vehicle bus (MVB) protocol testing (main article in Chinese) by clicking on the link below:

Research Paper
FTIR Spectroscopy for Protein-Membrane Interactions

At the University of Konstanz a fast high resolution Spectrum M3i.4142 digitizer provides nanosecond time-resolution in an FTIR spectroscopy system that’s used to investigate protein-membrane interactions. See the full details here:

Research Paper
Test of two-quibit Quantum Processor

At the QuTech and the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, in the Netherlands they are using an M4i.44xx series digitizer to test a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon. Find out how by clicking here:

Research Paper
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a key technique for the study of the structure and dynamics of molecular systems. At the Walter Schottky Institute of the Technical University Munich they are using a Spectrum M4i.4451-x8 digitizer card to help detect, acquire and analyze spin echoes in a pulsed ESR system. A white paper summarizing the experimental setup and results is available here:

Research Paper
Photoacoustic Imaging

Find out how Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, uses a high speed 16 bit Spectrum digitizer M4i.4420-x8 for Photoacoustic Imaging by clicking here:

Research Paper
Ultrasonic 3D Endoscopic Imaging System

See how the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, at University College London, UK, use an M4i.4420-x8 high-resolution digitizer in a miniature all optical ultrasonic 3D endoscopic imaging system by clicking here:

Research Paper
Non-Invasive Cancerous Tissue Treatment

Click below to find out how the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK, are using a Spectrum M4i.4420-x8 high-resolution digitizer, plasmonic gold nanorods and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to improve non-invasive techniques for the treatment of cancerous tissue

Research Paper
Therapeutic Ultrasound Brain Deseases Treamtment

At the Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, researchers are using a Spectrum M4i.4421-x8 16 bit digitizer to study ultrasound propagation in materials that are used to modell the human skull as well as investigating therapeutic ultrasound as a potential means to treat deseases of the brain.

Research Paper
Breast Ultrasound Scanning System

The Laboratory of Acoustical Waveform Imaging, Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, is developing the Delft Breast Ultrasound Scanning System (DBUS) as a means for detecting the presence of tumors. Find out how they are using the 14 bit M3i.4142 digitizer by following this link:

Research Paper
Real-Time 2D Ultrasound Imaging

A video-rate all-optical ultrasound imaging system, where ultrasound is generated and detected using light, has been demonstrated at the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, UK. The system uses a Spectrum M4i.4420-x8 high resolution 16 bit digitizer to acquire signals from a broadband photodiode. Details on how the system enables real-time, video-rate 2D ultrasound imaging, at a frame rate of 15 Hz, can be found here:

Research Paper
High-Order Pulse-Echo Ultrasound

The Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland they are researching ways to improve scanning acoustic microscopy by introducing high order reflection pulse-echo (HOPE)-ultrasound. HOPE is a novel method that leverages high order reflections to improve on several aspects of conventional ultrasound imaging. A research paper on the HOPE development, which uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer, to acquire the related transducer signals, can be found here

Research Papers
All-Optical Ultrasound Imaging

All-optical ultrasound (AOUS) imaging, uses light to both generate and detect ultrasound, and is an emerging alternative to conventional electronic ultrasound imaging. At the Department of Medical Physics & Biomedical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom, they've developed the first AOUS system with a flexible, handheld imaging probe, which represents a critical step towards clinical translation. White papers describing the research, which uses the M4i.4420-x8, 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition, are available here:

White Paper
Ageing Dementia Research

At the Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, in Australia they are studying possible ways to treat Alzheimer's disease using scanning ultrasound. A paper discussing the research, which uses an M4i.4421-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition, can be found here:

Research Paper
Testing Concrete Structures

onitoring of the behaviour of concrete under load is an important task in the safety evaluation of concrete structures. At the College of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, in China, they are applying the coda wave method to the non-destructive testing of concrete structures and looking how it can improve measurement penetration and sensitivity. A research paper on their work, which uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition, can be found here:

Research Paper
High-Resolution Dual Comb Spectroscopy

At the University of Lyon, France, they have developed a bidirectional DC spectrometer (BD-DCS) that allows for the observation of the line-resolved molecular absorption spectrum in a broad spectral range. Signals from an Si-photodetector in the system are acquired using an M4i.4450-x8 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer. A paper describing the BD-DCS and the high-resolution measurements made can be found here:

Research Paper
Readout of Spins in Silicon

At the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom, they are developing methods for making of fast high-fidelity single-shot readout of spins in silicon quantum dots using a compact, dispersive charge sensor. A paper discussing the processes, which uses an M4i.4451-x8 500 MS/s, 14-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition, is available here:

Research Paper
Characterizing the Aerosol Atmosphere

The Departament de F´ısica, Universitat Aut'onoma de Barcelona in Spain, have studied the aerosol atmosphere above the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, by analysing data from an absolutely calibrated elastic LIDAR. Since 2017, the system has used an M4i.4450-x8 500 MS/s, 14-bit, Digitizer for signal acquisition. A paper discussing the results can be found here:

Research Paper
Searching for Axion Dark Matter

At the Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), in the Republic of Korea, they have developed a fast data acquisition system for axion dark matter searches. The system is based on a microwave resonant cavity and uses an M4i.4470-x8 180 MS/s, 16-bit, Digitizer for signal acquisition. The aim is to achieve very high scanning rates. A paper discussing the development can be found here:

Research Paper
Mixing-Ratio Measurements of N20

The New Jersey Institute of Technology, in the US, has been using a quantum cascade laser open path system to study N2O path-averaged mixing ratios by detecting the light backscattered from common topographic targets. The system uses an M4i.4420-x8 250 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition and a paper, discussing the detection limits and accuracy, can be found here:

Research Paper

Digitizer 1 GS and more

High Energy Stereoscopic System

At the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, the calibration of photomultiplier tubes for intensity interferometry used at H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) has been the basis of a Master’s Thesis. The study examined a calibration process for two types of PMT used at the H.E.S.S. telescopes under various voltages. Pulse shape was also investigated. To acquire and analyse the PMT pulses an M4i.2212-x8 1.25 GS/s, 8-bit Digitizer was used. The thesis document discussing the setup and results can be found here:

Master Thesis
Direct-Comp Spectroscopy

The Department of Physics, Keio University, Japan is using an M4i.2230-x8 5 GS/s Digitizer for high speed data acquisition with fast time domain averaging to perform scan-free high-resolution direct-comb spectroscopy where the mode spacing of an optical frequency comb is reduced down to 260 kHz by phase modulation. Details on the development can be found here:

Research Paper
Brillouin Optical Time-domain Reflectometer

At the Changsha University of Science & Technology in China they have used a Spectrum M4i.2210-x8, 1.25 GS/s, Digitizer to acquire high speed pulses in a Brillouin Optical Time-domain Reflectometer (BOTDR) using Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT). A paper discussing experimental results that show improved spatial resolution and accurate location of distributed sensing is available here:

Research Paper
Analysis of Diode Laser Modulation Wavelengths

The State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, China, is using a 1.25 GS/s M4i.2212-x8 Digitizer together with a customized long fiber ring etalon to make measurements and analysis of diode laser modulation wavelengths at high accuracy and response rates. An article discussing their process can be found here:

Research Paper
Fluorescence Imaging Flow Cytometry System

The Department of Chemistry at the University of Tokyo, Japan, is using a 1.25 GS/s M4i.2212-x8 Digitizer as part of a frequency-division-multiplexed fluorescence imaging flow cytometry system. The aim is to allow accurate characterization and classification of a large population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution for diverse applications such as water treatment, biofuel production, food, and nitrogen-fixing biofertilization. Details of their research can be found here:

Research Paper
Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy

The School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan is using a 5 GS/s M4i.2230-x8 Digitizer to achieve optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy with sub-micron lateral resolution for visualization of cells and their structures. Details and results of their experimental setup can be found here:

Research Paper
Ultrafast Spectroscopy

At the Technical University of Dortmund, Germany, they are using a 5 GS/s M4i.2234-x8 Digitizer in nonstationary quantum state tomography, adapting the technique to the special requirements of ultrafast spectroscopy. A white paper on the topic can be found here:

White Paper
Fluorescence Lifetime Estimation

At Tokushima University in Japan they are performing fluorescence lifetime estimation by 1-bit photon autocorrelation procedure from time-series data recorded using a high-speed M4i.2220-x8 digitizer. The application details can be found here:

Application Details
Acoustic-Resolution-based Photoacoustic Microscope (ARPAM)

At the Central South University in Changsha, China, they are using an M4i.2233-x8 high speed digitizer in an improved acoustic-resolution-based photoacoustic microscope (ARPAM) that helps to resolve the conflict between lateral resolution and depth of field. The article is available here:

Research Paper
3 Megapixel Ultrasonic Microscope

The University of Helsinki, Finland, has developed a 3 Megapixel Ultrasonic Microscope using a Spectrum M4i.6631-x8 AWG for signal transmission and an M4i.2233-x8 digitizer for data acquisition. IEEE members can download the full article here:

Research Paper
Optical Homodyne Tomography (OHT)

Researchers are developing techniques of non-stationary optical homodyne tomography (OHT) that allows the investigation of the hidden dynamics of light fields. At the Technical University of Dortmund they are using an M4i.2234-x8 5 GS/s digitizer to acquire signals from a balanced detector as part of their non-stationary OHT system which is discussed here:

Research Paper
Quantum random Number Generator

At the Technical University of Dortmund researchers are using an M4i.2234-x8 5 GS/s digitizer to help them investigate the potential to eavesdrop on a trusted quantum random number generator. They experimentally realize an eavesdropping attack and discuss the process here:

Research Paper
Compact Indoor Localization System

Learn how a Spectrum digitizer M3i.2132 and UWB technology is used by Telecom ParisTech to develop a compact Indoor Localization System (article in French and English) by clicking here:

Arcticle (French and English)
Partial Discharge (PD) Detection

Using an antenna array for non-contact Partial Discharge (PD) detection has become a useful technique for in air-insulated substation (AIS) monitoring. At the State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China, they are using two synchronized Spectrum M4i.2221-x8 digitizers to simultaneously collect signals from four antenna at a sampling rate of 2.5 GS/s. The white paper shows time difference localization techniques and how they can be classified as maximum-likelihood (ML) and least squares (LS) estimators

White Paper
Optical Light Fields Photon Correlations

At the Technical University of Dortmund, Germany, physicists have developed a technique to determine photon correlations of optical light fields in real time. The system uses a high speed Spectrum M4i.2234-x8 digitizer to acquire signals from a balanced homodyne detector. The full details including the experimental setup and results can be found here:

Research Paper
Laser-scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

Laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy is a relatively new and important tool for biomedical research. At the University of Tokyo they are able to demonstrate confocal fluorescence microscopy at a record high frame rate of 16,000 frames/s thanks to new research and the use of a Spectrum M4i.2212-x8 high-speed digitizer. Click below to read the full story.

Research Paper
Dimensional Metrology

At the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zürich, Switzerland, a fast Spectrum M4i.2234-x8 digitizer is being used in experiments aimed at solving problems in dimensional metrology. The digitizer is used with ultrashort pulse lasers and spectral manipulation to offer benefits in applications such as long distance measurement and 3D laser scanning. A white paper outlining the experimental approach and results can be found here

Research Paper
Surface Spin-Wave Pulses

Find out how the University of Oxford, United Kingdom, is using a high-speed Spectrum Digitizer M4i.2234-x8 to acqure and analyze time-resolved measurements of surface spin-wave pulses at millikelvin temperatures by clicking here:

Research Paper
High-Speed Single-Pixel Imaging

At the Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, in Japan, they can obtain fluorescence images from biological cells using high-speed single-pixel imaging. The method integrates frequency-division multiplexing and time-division multiplexing and applies the combined technique, namely frequency-time-division multiplexing (FTDM), to optical imaging. Signal acquisition includes the use of an M4i.2212-x8 1.25 GS/s, 8-bit PCIe Digitizer, and a white paper on the topic can be found here:

White Paper
Target Tracking

Target tracking has applications in various field, such as biomedical, computer or robotic vision and non-line-of-light motion sensing. At the University of Science and Technology of
China, Hefei, China they have developed a single-pixel imaging technique that can measure zero-order and first-order geometric moments. The information is then used to reconstruct and track the centroid of a fast-moving object in real time. At the core of the system is an M4i.2212-x8 1.25 GS/s, 8-bit PCIe Digitizer that acquires photodiode signals. This allows back-scattered intensity information from the target to be determined. A white paper discussing the research can be found here

White Paper
Astronomical Intensity Interferometry

At the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University, Germany they are studying astronomical intensity interferometry methods that enable quantitative measurements of the source geometry by measuring the photon fluxes in individual telescopes and correlating them, instead of correlating the electromagnetic waves' amplitudes. Laboratory simulation uses an M4i.2212-x8 1.25 GS/s, 8-bit Digitizer for signal acquisition and a paper describing the research is available here:

Research Paper
Ultrasonic Velocity in Ultra-Low Expansion Glass

The temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity in ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass is being studied at the Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China. In a white paper they present a correlation method to determine the ultrasonic TOF in ULE glass and to further obtain the ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity indirectly. The experimental setup uses an M4i.2220-x8 2.5 GS/s, 8-bit Digitizer to capture signals from an ultrasonic pulser/receiver.

White Paper
Secure Key Generation and Distribution

Cryptographic keys are a vital part of any security system as they control everything from data encryption and decryption to user authentication. The Fiber-Optic research Center, at Fudan University in China, has developed a secure key generation and distribution scheme based on the phase noise of an amplified spontaneous emission source. Experimental results, at a bit generation rate of 3.06 Gb/s over a length of 20 km standard single-mode optical fiber route, showed the bit error rate stays under 0.02%. The experimental setup uses an M4i.2221-x8 2.5 Gs/s. 8-bit Digitizer and a paper discussing the research can be found here:

Research Paper
Beam Diagnostics for the SKIF Linear Accelerator

At the fourth-generation SKIF synchrotron light source at Novosibirsk, Russia, they are using a DN2.222-02 digitizerNETBOX that samples at up to 2.5 GS/s, with 8-bit resolution as part of their diagnostic instruments for tuning the linac and measuring critical beam parameters. A paper that provides an overview of the beam instrumentation and discusses possible linac tuning scenarios is available here:

Research Paper

AWGs

Patienst Safety in MRI Process

At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany they are investigating ways to improve the safety for patients with implants who are to be subjected to an MRI process. The PTB is using two M4i.6622-x8 AWG’s and an M4i.4451-x8 digitizer as part of a signal transmission and reception system. A white paper that describes the system and demonstrates how RF induced heating and its mitigation can be achieved is presented here:

White Paper
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

In Rehovot, Israel at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Chemical and Biological Physics, they are using the M2p.6541-x4 40 MS/s, 16-bit AWG and M2p.5923-x4 20 MS/s, 16-bit Digitizer cards for signal generation and acquisition in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). A white paper that discusses flexible STEM, with simultaneous phase and depth contrast, is available here

Research Paper
Control of EOM for Quantum Computing

At the Technical University of Denmark they are using an M4i.6631-x8, 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit, AWG to generate the required waveforms that control the electro-optical phase modulators (EOMs) on a scalable photonic quantum computing platform. A reference paper on the development can be found here:

Research Paper
Nanopore Analysis

At the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, China, they are using a Spectrum M4x.6621-x4 AWG as a precision waveform generator for their research into a Fourier Transform Induced Data Process for Label-free Selective Nanopore Analysis under Sinusoidal Voltage Excitations. A research paper with supplementary documentation showing the experimental setup is available here:

Research Paper
Visible Light Communication Systems

The School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, has been studying visible light communication systems that support wireless data access and indoor positioning applications. For precision multi-channel signal generation they use a Spectrum M4x. 6622-x4 AWG capable of outputting waveforms at rates up to 625 MS/s with 16 bit resolution. A dissertation paper on the research can be found here:

Dissertation Paper
Swept Frequency Response Analysis

Power system failures are often related to mechanical deformation in transformer windings. Winding distortion can lead to insulation deterioration which in turn can produce partial discharge and gassing type events. At the Xi’an Jiaotong University, in Xi’an, China, they are using a Spectrum M2i.4912 Digitizer and M2i.6011 AWG to perform Swept Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) while researching the main causes of transformer failure in high-voltage power systems. IEEE members can read the full story here:

Research Paper (IEEE Login)
Electron-Beam Induced Deposition

See how Spectrum AWG's M2i.6021-exp are used in Electron-Beam Induced Deposition (EBID) at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, by clicking here:

Research Paper
AOM for Rydberg Atom Arrays

At the Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA they are using a Spectrum M4i.6631-x8 Arbitrary Waveform Generator to drive an acousto-optic modulator and a Rydberg laser to generate and manipulate Schrodinger cat states in Rydberg atom arrays. The research paper covering the experimental setup and results is available for download here:

Research Paper
Laser Control for OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)

The Technische University, at Eindhoven in the Netherlands, has developed a control strategy, that includes the use of an AWG (model M2p.6566-x4 125 MS/s, 16-bit) as the signal source, for a monolithically integrated widely tuneable laser system on InP for optical coherence tomography. A white paper discussing the development is available here:

Reserahc Paper
Dynamic Hologram Generation for Atom Array Adressing

A thesis paper, presented to the Department of Physics and the Department of Computer Science at Harvard University, in the US, shows how an acousto-optic modulator array can be used to address a spatial light modulator from different angles. Two M2p.6568-x4 125 MS/s, 16-bit, AWG's act as a fast signal source to independently drive 16 acousto-optic modulators. The thesis which discusses the experimental setup, results and potential applications can be found here:

Research Paper
Eurler Insulators with trapped ION Quantum Simulator

The Tsinghua University in Beijing, China is researching the observation of topological Euler insulators with a trapped-ion quantum simulator. Their results show the advantage of quantum simulation technologies for studying exotic topological phases and open a new avenue for investigating fragile topological phases in experiments. The experiments use a DN2.663-04 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit AWG to generate the necessary microwaves and a paper on the subject can be found here:

Research Paper
Programmable Tweezer Array of Fermions

At the Department of Physics, Princeton University, in the US, they are able to prepare high-filling two-component arrays of up to fifty fermionic atoms in optical tweezers. Using a stroboscopic method, they are able to configure the arrays in various two-dimensional geometries with negligible Floquet heating. The arrays are generated by acousto-optic modulators that are driven by an M4i.6621-x8 625 MS/s, 16-bit AWG. A paper discussing the topic is available here

Research Paper
Development of Quantum Processor

The demonstration of a quantum processor with dynamic, non-local connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, between layers of single- and two-qubit operations has been made at the Department of Physics, Harvard University, in the US. The system includes an M4i.6631-x8 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit AWG which is used as a signal source to drive two acousto-optic deflectors. A paper discussing the development can be found here and another showing the quantum phases of matter on a 256-atom programmable quantum simulator can be found here

Research Paper
Raman Driving of Hyperfine Qubits

Hyperfine atomic states offer promising candidates for qubit encoding in quantum information processing. At the Department of Physics, Harvard University, in the US, they have developed a new approach that offers high efficiency, and is compatible with high-power laser sources, enabling large Rabi frequencies and improved quantum coherence. The system uses a DN2.662-04 625 MS/s, 16-bit AWG as a driving signal source and a paper discussing the methodology can be found here:

Research Paper
RbCs Molecules confined in Optical Tweezers

A crucial step towards the association of arrays of single RbCs molecules, confined in optical tweezers, is the preparation of 87Rb and 133Cs in the motional ground state of a single optical tweezer. At the Department of Physics, Durham University, in the United Kingdom, they present a paper on the topic below. The system uses a two dimensional acousto-optic deflector that's driven by an M4i.6631-x8 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit AWG.

Research Paper
Light Shaping through moving Acoust-Optic Holograms

A holographic acousto-optic light modulation (HALM) system, that is based on displaying holograms on acousto-optic deflectors, has been developed at the Optical Trapping Lab – Grup de Biofotònica, Departament de Física Aplicada, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, in Spain. The system has potential application in future laser projectors and displays, structured illumination microscopy, laser material processing and optical trapping. To generate the acousto-optic deflector driving signals they are using an M4i.6631-x8 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit AWG. A paper discussing the system can be found here:

Research Paper
Imaging of tiny Currents in Bilayer Graphene

At the Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, in Switzerland, they are creating images of microampere currents in bilayer graphene using a scanning diamond magnetometer. Research papers, which includes experiments that demonstrate the feasibility for imaging subtle features of nanoscale transport in two-dimensional materials and conductors, can be found here and here. The system is using a DN2.663-04 1.25 GS/s, 16-bit AWG as a signal source to generate all the necessary analog and digital control signals

Research Paper
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