The block, or segmented memory, averaging mode is used with Digitizers for different applications where incoherent noise needs to be removed from a signal. Independent of the manufacturer of the digitizer all FPGA based hardware implementations of the block averaging mode limit the maximum size of the segment to be averaged. The limit depends on the capacity of the FPGA and usually ranges from 32k up to 500k samples.
This white paper shows how to use the fast PCIe streaming capabilities of the Spectrum M4i series digitizers to implement block averaging in software to go beyond these limits. Using the M4i.2230-x8 (1 channel, 5 GS/s, 8 bit digitizer with 1.5 GHz bandwidth) results achieved with both the hardware and software block averaging methods are compared.
What is Block Averaging?
The Block Averaging mode can be used to improve the fidelity of any repetitive signal by removing its random noise components. The mode allows multiple single acquisitions to be made, accumulated and averaged. The process reduces random noise and improves the visibility of the repetitive signal. The averaged signal has an enhanced measurement resolution and increased signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio.
The Block Averaging mode can be used to improve measurements in a variety of different applications like Radar Test, Mass Spectroscopy, Medical Imaging, Ultrasonic Test, Optical Fiber Test and Laser Ranging.
The right side screenshot shows a low level signal (approximately 2 mV) that is completely overlaid by random noise and the improvement that can be achieved when using different averaging factors. While the source signal is not even visible in the original single-shot acquisition, averaging 10 times shows that there is actually a signal with 5 peaks. Doing a block average of 1000 times improves the signal quality even further revealing the real shape of the signal complete with secondary maximum and minimum peaks.
This example was made using a digitizer with a sampling rate of 500 MS/s (2 ns per point) and 14 bit resolution.
The test system was a standard office PC from the Spectrum development department consisting of the following components:
- Motherboard: Gigabyte GA-H77-D3H
- CPU: Intel i7-3770 4 x 3.4 GHz
- Memory: 8 GByte DDR3 memory
- SSD: 120 GByte Samsung 840 EVO
- Operating System: Windows 7 Professional 64 Bit
- Compiler: Visual Studio 2005 Standard Edition
The motherboard has one free PCIe x8 Gen2 slot which is used by the digitizer card. This slot has a payload of 256 which allows the Spectrum M4i cards to reach a full streaming speed of around 3.4 GByte/s (without any data processing).
The test software was done in plain C++ and is based on the Spectrum streaming examples. The test card was fed with an external trigger and acquired one segment of data on every trigger event. Data was stored in the cards on-board memory and transferred by scatter-gather DMA directly into PC memory where it was accumulated to perform the block averaging. Different setups and improvement methods have been tested to see what performance levels could be achieved.
The small source code excerpt shows the threaded version of the main summation loop. This is the crucial and speed determining part of the software.
SPCM_THREAD_RETURN SPCM_THREAD_CALLTYPE pvAverageSegmentPart (void* pvArguments)
SPCM_AVERAGE_DATA* pstData = (SPCM_AVERAGE_DATA*) pvArguments;
int32 i, j;
int32 lNumSegments = pstData->lNumSegments;
int32* plAverageData = pstData->plAverageData;
int8* pbyData = pstData->pbyData;
for (j=0; j<lNumSegments; j++)
lStart = j * pstData->lSegmentsize + pstData->lStartOffset;
lEnd = pstData->lStartOffset + pstData->lAveragesize;
for (i=lStart; i < lEnd; i++)
plAverageData[i] += (int32) pbyData[i];
The following list gives information and comments on the different aspects of the implementation found in the results section:
- Segmentsize: the number of samples for one data segment that will be acquired after receiving a trigger event.
- Averages: the number of averages (summations) that are performed until a segment is stored and the average process is restarted.
- Notifysize: the amount of data after which an interrupt is generated by the PC hardware. This notifysize defines the pace of the complete average loop. If the notifysize is larger than the segmentsize multiple segments are summarized on one interrupt. This reduces the overhead for thread communication and interrupt handling.
- Buffersize: the overall target buffer in memory for the DMA transfer. In our example the buffer is a fixed size of 16 times the notifysize.
- Triggerrate: the repetition rate of the external signal generator. In the results we show the maximum achieved triggerrate without filling up (overflowing) the buffers.
- Threads: to speed up the summation process we parallelized this task by splitting the summation into a number of different software threads as shown on the previous page. If Threads is shown as zero the summation process does not use threading but runs directly inline in a loop.
- CPU Load: as the average process is done in software the CPU(s) need to do all the work. Luckily modern CPU's consist of multiple cores allowing an easy way to share working tasks between them.
- SSE/SSE2 commands: on a first look these commands seem to be perfectly suited to parallelize the summation process and speed up the software without the need of any thread based programming. However, unfortunately the SSE command set is all based on data of the same type. As the acquired data is 8 bit wide and the average buffer is 32 bit wide this is not a solution that can be used here.
All measurements are made with a digitizer using 1 channel sampling at 5 GS/s, with 8 bit resolution and an external trigger. The table also lists different program settings to show the result differences. The best result for each segmentsize is marked yellow in the table.
|Samplerate||Segmentsize||Averages||Notifysize||Mode||Threads||Max triggerate||CPU Load|
|5 GS/s||32 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Hardware||-||150 kHz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||128 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Hardware||-||38 kHz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||256 kSamples||1000||256 kByte||Software||2||10.3 kHz||25%|
|5 GS/s||256 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||2||12.6 kHz||17%|
|5 GS/s||256 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||4||12.8 kHz||16%|
|5 GS/s||256 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||.||6.4 kHz||14%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||512 kByte||Software||2||5.9 kHz||25%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||512 kByte||Software||4||6.0 kHz||29%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||4||6.4 kHz||23%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||2 MByte||Software||4||6.4 kHz||23%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||8 MByte||Software||4||6.4 kHz||14%|
|5 GS/s||512 kSamples||1000||8 MByte||Software||-||3.4 kHz||14%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||-||1.5 kHz||16%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||2||2.9 kHz||24%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||1000||1 MByte||Software||4||2.9 kHz||23%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||100||1 MByte||Software||4||2.9 kHz||30%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||10000||1 MByte||Software||4||2.9 kHz||23%|
|5 GS/s||2 MSamples||1000||2 MByte||Software||-||0.7 kHz||14%|
|5 GS/s||2 MSamples||1000||2 MByte||Software||4||1.3 kHz||40%|
|5 GS/s||4 MSamples||1000||4 MByte||Software||-||340 Hz||15%|
|5 GS/s||4 MSamples||1000||4 MByte||Software||2||410 Hz||24%|
|5 GS/s||4 MSamples||1000||4 MByte||Software||4||390 Hz||50%|
|5 GS/s||8 MSamples||1000||8 MByte||Software||-||160 Hz||14%|
|5 GS/s||8 MSamples||1000||8 MByte||Software||2||190 Hz||35%|
New - Using a CUDA-based GPU for averaging
In November 2018 Spectrum released some examples for block averaging using the SCAPP (Spectrum 's CUDA Access for Parallel Processing) option for very fast data processing. The basic concept is the same as above where the acquisition is done by the Digitizer and the data is transferred continuously over the PCIe bus. However, instead of calculating the average inside the PC a GPU is used. A big advantage of the GPU-solution is that it is designed for parallel calculations. This makes it a perfect fit for any kind of block average process.
SCAPP gives users the ability to port data directly to the GPU, using RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) transfers, where high-speed time and frequency domain signal averaging can be performed without the length or calculation power limitations typically found in other averaging products.
For example, an M4i.2220-x8 Spectrum digitizer can sample signals at 2.5 GS/s and average them continuously without missing an event, even when the signals being averaged are several seconds in length. Similarly, an M4i.4451-x8 digitizer with 14-bit resolution can perform the same function while sampling four signals simultaneously at 450 MS/s! The digitizer cards also include flexible trigger, acquisition and readout modes, which allows them to average signals even when the trigger rates are extremely high. In contrast to the FPGA-based solution, which needs the highest performance FPGAs, the GPU-based averaging already runs at full-speed, even with entry-level GPU cards!
The following table shows some of the test results with the GPU using a similar setup as before:
|Samplerate||Segmentsize||Averages||Notifysize||Mode||Threads||Max triggerate||CPU Load|
|5 GS/s||32 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||GPU||-||103 kHz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||256 kSamples||1000||1 MByte||GPU||-||12.9 kHz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||1 MSamples||1000||1 MByte||GPU||-||3.2 kHz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||4 MSamples||1000||4 MByte||GPU||-||810 Hz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||16 MSamples||1000||16 MByte||GPU||-||203 Hz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||64 MSamples||1000||64 MByte||GPU||-||51 Hz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||256 MSamples||1000||64 MByte||GPU||-||13 Hz||< 5%|
|5 GS/s||1 GSamples||1000||64 MByte||GPU||-||3 Hz||< 5%|
These results have been achieved using a simple Quadro P2000 GPU. As seen in the table the segment size or block size is not limiting the performance. The only limiting factor here is the memory of the GPU.
Frequency domain averaging with GPU
In cases where the frequency domain should be averaged the GPU can also be used allowing very large block sizes compared to an FPGA solution. A frequency domain average consists of an FFT of the block followed by a summation of the FFT result. The processing then consists of two steps where the FFT calculation is very demanding in terms of processing power. For frequency domain averaging the GPU is the only solution, besides an FPGA, as the PC is simply not suitable for FFT conversion at high speeds.
The following table shows some test results using an M4i.4451-x8 4 channel 14 bit digitizer with a maximum sampling rate of 500 MS/s. The acquisition is effectively gap-less with each block being converted into voltage levels, transformed into the frequency domain and then averaged.
|Samplerate||Channels||resolution||Blocksize||notifysize||mode||Max triggerate||CPU Load|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||512 kSamples||GPU||GPU||1 kHz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||1 MSample||GPU||GPU||500 Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||2 MSamples||GPU||GPU||250 Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||8 MSamples||GPU||GPU||6 2Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||32 MSamples||GPU||GPU||16 Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||128 MSamples||GPU||GPU||4 Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||1 channel||14 Bit||256 MSamples||GPU||GPU||2 Hz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||2 channels||14 Bit||256 kSamples||GPU||GPU||2 kHz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||2 channels||14 Bit||512 kSamples||GPU||GPU||1 kHz||< 5%|
|500 MS/s||2 channels||14 Bit||1 MSample||GPU||GPU||500 Hz||< 5%|
|400 MS/s||4 channels||14 Bit||128 kSamples||GPU||GPU||3 kHz||< 5%|
|400 MS/s||4 channels||14 Bit||256 kSamples||GPU||GPU||1.5 kHz||< 5%|
|400 MS/s||4 channels||14 Bit||512 kSamples||GPU||GPU||750 Hz||< 5%|
As the above results show block averaging in PC-based software can be used to improve the overall segment size as long as the repetition rate doesn't get to high. When using a GPU one can even get to the limit of the bus transfer speed. Thanks to the high-speed data transfer rates of the PCIe bus much longer acquisitions can be averaged overcoming one of the main limitations of FPGA based averaging processes. For situations where high repetition rates need to be managed, that extend the transfer speed, hardware block averaging will still be the best choice.
The above test program is free to use for your own tests or as a base for implementation in other software programs. The GPU examples are part of the SCAPP option and are available to Spectrum customers against an NDA.
The best performance is reached when using a notifysize of 1 MByte. The number of averages that is performed does not have any visible impact on the test results. The time used to copy the result segment and to clear the result buffer is irrelevant compared to the sample summation.
As the complete data handling and summation process does not differ when acquiring multiple channels the result can simply be re-calculated for other channel combinations. The following settings will all result in exactly the same maximum trigger rate:
- 1 channel 5 GS/s @ segmentsize
- 2 channels 2.5 GS/s @ segmentsize/2
- 4 channels 1.25 GS/s @ segmentsize/4
Reducing the sampling speed for one channel down to 2.5 GS/s allows to run one channel with the maximum theoretical software averaging speed. For 1 MSample segmentsize including the 160 samples dead time the theoretical maximum trigger rate is at:
(2.5 GS/s) / (1 MSample + 160) = 2.38 kHz
This is far below the measured maximum of 2.9 kHz @ 5 GS/s.