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A new approach to fusion energy - inspired by the pistol shrimp | Spectrum

British company wants to achieve fusion gain in only 5 years
Fusion has long been viewed as the ultimate goal for energy generation. Smashing together deuterium and tritium atoms releases energy as they combine and is the reaction at the heart of the sun. With no dangerous waste products and a virtually limitless supply of these atoms from seawater, billions have been spent on fusion research. However, recreating the extreme conditions of temperature and pressure on earth are not easy. A British company called First Light Fusion (FLF) is pioneering a very different approach to fusion and is on target to achieve fusion gain – more energy out than goes in – by 2024. In order to achieve the conditions needed for fusion, they launch a projectile to hypervelocities at a target which requires very high levels of precision to achieve and so they selected 32 digitizers from Spectrum Instrumentation to monitor the results.
vacuum chamber - firing with the power of 500 lightnings

One of the founders of FLF was inspired by the pistol shrimp that clicks one of its claws in such a way as to create cavities in the water that heat as they implode forming plasma, resulting in a shockwave that stuns its prey. The precise mechanism of the collapsing is inertial confinement and is the only naturally occurring example of this phenomenon. FLF is using this to remove the complexity of needing huge containment mechanisms and focuses on managing the complexities of the implosion phenomenon to create the temperatures and pressure that match those at the heart of stars for fusion to occur. Inertial confinement means that the plasma is held together by its own inertia rather than by magnetic fields or lasers, both of which require large amounts of energy to maintain, making fusion gain much harder to achieve than FLF’s system that uses a fraction of the energy to operate. Effectively, FLF has dramatically lowered the energy produced threshold that needs to be reached for fusion gain.

Paul Holligan, Head of Pulsed Power at FLF, explained: “We have a different approach to the other organizations trying to achieve fusion gain. We are not using lasers or intense magnetic fields which themselves can prove to be very complicated and costly to build. By choosing pulsed power as our driver technology, we have reduced the cost and complexity in this area and, in practice, the challenge is perfecting the design and shape of the target; that is where we are establishing unique IP and developing our simulation and modeling capability. This is the new science stage. Beyond that, we can clearly see a path to achieving clean energy that is simple and inexpensive within a realistic timeframe. We are driven by wanting to power a world worth inheriting by our children.”

Machine 3 has been constructed to electromagnetically launch the projectiles and consists of six banks of capacitors arranged radially around a central vacuum chamber where the experiment takes place. The capacitors are charged up to 200,000 Volts over the period of a minute and the stored electrical energy is discharged in less than two microseconds. This generates up to 14 million Amps which create intense magnetic fields that launch the projectile into the center at velocities approaching 20 km a second, delivering 200 KJ of kinetic energy. FLF tested the firing of three limbs last year and has now successfully commissioned the full, six limb machine and started science experiments. Each discharge is equivalent to 500 simultaneous lightning strikes. A total of 2.5 MJ are used for every discharge and the progress made so far gives the company confidence in achieving fusion gain by 2024 which, to date, has never been done in an experiment like this.

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